In French, to make formal questions, we usually invert the verb and its subject (je, tu, nous, vous, ils, elles). See Inverted questions in the present tense (Le Présent) in French - regular forms (except il/elle/on forms).
However, this method is not as straightforward when the subject is il, elle or on.
Inverted questions in Le Présent (Indicatif) in French
Look at these examples:
Notice that when the verb ends with a vowel (often the case with il/elle/on), then a t must be inserted in-between the verb and il/elle/on with hyphens : -t- .
When the verb already ends in a 't' or 'd', you don't need to insert the extra 't' because it's already present (the 'd' is pronounced [t] in these cases):
The same rules apply in questions starting with a question word (que, qui, où, ...):
Asking questions in French with "qui/que/quoi/quand/où/comment/pourquoi/combien" (French Question Words)
Que + [inverted statement] ? = What ... ? (French Questions)
Inverted questions in the present tense (Le Présent) in French - with names/things/emphasis
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