Look at these sentences:
Elle passe le bac, mais elle n'est pas sûre de l'avoir.She's taking her A-levels, but she's not certain to pass them.
Et l'exam que tu as passé le mois dernier? - Hélas, je ne l'ai pas eu / je ne l'ai pas réussi!What about the exam you took last month? - Unfortunately, I didn't pass. (it)
J'ai passé le concours d'entrée, j'espère que je l'obtiendrai!I took the entrance examination , I hope I'll get it!
Passer un examen in French never means 'to pass an exam': it actually means 'to take an exam', with no implication of its outcome.
Note that you will never use "prendre" to say "to take an exam" !
To say that you passed an exam, you would use "réussir (à) un exam/ obtenir un exam / avoir un exam"
See also Avoir un exam = To pass an exam
Want to make sure your French sounds confident?
We’ll map your knowledge and give you free lessons to focus on your
gaps and mistakes. Start your Braimap today »