Look at these sentences:
J'ai failli le faire, mais je me suis retenu.I almost did it, but I stopped myself.
Tu as failli y rester.You almost died [lit. you almost remained there].
Il a failli tomber.He almost fell.
Ta mère et moi avons failli ne pas nous marier.Your mother and I almost didn't get married.
Vous avez failli lui dire la vérité.You almost told him the truth.
Ils ont failli avoir un accident.They almost had an accident.
In French, to express the idea that you almost did something (but didn't), you will use the verb faillir as follows:
faillir + [infinitif]
Note that the verb faillir is usually used in Passé composé, as it refers to actions that "failed to happen".
Though the verb faillir is etymologically close to the English to fail, it's not used to express failure, but a more neutral non-accomplishment.
Therefore, you wouldn't use it to say I failed to do [something].
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