Don't fret about passé simple. It is never used unless you're writing literary French. Did you mean another tense? Maybe plus-que-parfait?
You use the plus-que-parfait if you want to stress that the two actions are temporally farther apart. Either one is correct, but the choice depends on the temporal relationship between the two actions.
Je suis retourné me coucher après que tu es parti. -- I went back to sleep after you left.Je suis retourné me coucher après que tu étais parti. -- I went back to sleep after you had left. (This doesn't quite work for me in English, though).
P.S.: In my first post there slipped an extraneous "s" into "partis" that shouldn't be there.
You need the passé composé.
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